Interpretation of Individual Abilities
Test Results

Having this insight into individual’s intellectual profile helps in planning learning programs to improve their abilities and overall performance.

The individual abilities will be examined according to the Operations. Then they will be grouped with the skills they are related to for diagnostic purposes.


Interpretation: Cognition Abilities

Cognition of Figural Classes – CFC
Visual Conceptualization

Definition: This is a test of visual conceptualization. It requires the recognition and classification of conceptually similar figural items. This ability is a prerequisite for reading comprehension and is also related to science abilities.

Well Developed: High CFC scores show strong visual conceptualization abilities for recognizing similar figural items. This ability facilitates word recognition and beginning reading comprehension. These students have good organization abilities and can easily outline and organize information for papers and essays.

Under Developed: Low scores in CFC indicate difficulty with understanding the meanings and concepts behind words or the ideas that are communicated through them. This leads to comprehension problems in reading. A student may be able to read a paragraph but not know what it says. Students with weak CFC abilities may have difficulty with classification and show a lack of good organizational skills. Older students may have difficulty organizing information for essays or research papers.

Cognition of Figural Systems – CFS
Spatial Orientation and Constancy of Objects in Space

Definition: This is a test of object constancy in space. It tests the ability to maintain a particular orientation to an object and to keep that orientation regardless of how it changes position in space. It is critical for comprehension of spatial aspects of mathematics and geometry.

Well Developed: Students who perform high on CFS have good spatial orientation. They are able to perceive and deal with figural-spatial systems from any point of view. Students who are strong in this ability will be adept in higher mathematics.

Under Developed: Low Scores in CFS may indicate problems with figural spatial material. Students with weaknesses in this ability may have difficulty with spatial orientation and spatial organization. There may be difficulty with maps, knowing which directions which and they may get lost easily. They may also have problems with geometry and higher mathematics skills.

Cognition of Figural Transformation – CFT
Spatial Conservation and Perception

Definition: CFT is the ability to recognize a shape or figure that has changed positions or rotated in space. It tests the individual’s ability to see a shape or an object from a different perspective and still recognize it as the same object. This ability is related to Piaget’s theory of conservation — in this case, spatial conservation. Like CFS, it is critical for mathematics problem-solving in geometry, trigonometry and calculus

Well Developed: High scores in CFT indicate that a student has goodspatial abilities and can identify objects from different perspectives or directions. It shows a strong ability for mathematical thinking in geometry, trigonometry and calculus.

Under Developed: Low CFT scores indicate difficulty with recognizing objects from different perspectives. It usually indicate spatial perceptual problems and tendencies toward confusion with figural-spatial material when it is moved or re-oriented as with maps or charts. There may also be difficulty in working in and moving around in large open spaces and maintaining appropriate perspectives to things in the environment. Like weaknesses in CFS, it will make mathematics problem-solving in geometry, trigonometry and calculus difficult.

Cognition of Symbolic Relations – CSR
Comprehending Abstract Relations in Symbolic Information

Definition: This is a test of abstract relations. It is considered one of the most difficult tasks in the SOI-LA test. This test relates to the ability to find abstract relationships in symbolic information—in this case letters. This ability is used in computer science, physics, theoretical mathematics and cryptology (code breaking).

Well Developed: Strong CSR ability indicates an ability to see abstract relations in symbolic material—numbers, letters, musical notes or other notations. These students will probably enjoy discovering patterns among symbols and devising letter and number codes in elementary school. In high school they are likely to be adept in working algebraic equations and computer programming.

Under Developed: Low CSR scores for young students (below the 4th or 5th grade) are not too meaningful unless all relations are low since this is a very difficult subtest. For older students low CSR scores show difficulty in seeing abstract relationships in symbolic information, i.e. numbers, letters, etc. Weakness in this ability points to probable difficulties in mathematics or any other area that requires working with symbolic information at more complex levels.

Cognition of Symbolic Relations – CSR
Comprehending Abstract Relations in Symbolic Information

Definition: This is a test of abstract relations. It is considered one of the most difficult tasks in the SOI-LA test. This test relates to the ability to find abstract relationships in symbolic information—in this case letters. This ability is used in computer science, physics, theoretical mathematics and cryptology (code breaking).

Well Developed: Strong CSR ability indicates an ability to see abstract relations in symbolic material—numbers, letters, musical notes or other notations. These students will probably enjoy discovering patterns among symbols and devising letter and number codes in elementary school. In high school they are likely to be adept in working algebraic equations and computer programming.

Under Developed: Low CSR scores for young students (below the 4th or 5th grade) are not too meaningful unless all relations are low since this is a very difficult subtest. For older students low CSR scores show difficulty in seeing abstract relationships in symbolic information, i.e. numbers, letters, etc. Weakness in this ability points to probable difficulties in mathematics or any other area that requires working with symbolic information at more complex levels.

Cognition of Symbolic Systems – CSS
Comprehending Number Concepts

Definition: CSS tests the comprehension of numerical progressions. Because the underlying system involves rote-math facts, this subtest provides information on the student’s mastery of these rote skills. This ability, however, is broader than numerical progressions; it is the ability to understand the interrelatedness of symbols within a sequenced set. It is related to facility with arithmetic notation and to the ability to recognize patterns, such as sequential ordering of symbolic information. Initially it involves rote counting. At higher levels it relates to more complex sequences such as prime numbers, multiples of numbers and different number base systems.

Well Developed: High CSS sources are associated with good a understanding of basic number facts and higher level concepts and arithmetic achievement.

Under Developed: Low scores in CSS indicate difficulty with understanding basic number concepts and in working with sequenced symbolic material—numbers, letters, etc.

Cognition of Semantic Units – CMU
Vocabulary

Definition: CMU tests students’ understanding of the meaning of words. It is a test of vocabulary and verbal concepts; as such it is highly related to reading comprehension and academic achievement.

Well Developed: High CMU abilities indicates individuals who have a strong understanding of the meaning of words and is thus prepared for advanced reading and comprehension in all areas of the school curriculum.

Under Developed: Students with low scores in CMU in general have a low vocabulary, particularly for reading. Difficulties will show up in areas such as reading comprehension and solving word problems in mathematics. Often students from economically or linguistically deprived environments will do poorly on CMU.

Cognition of Semantic Relations – CMR
Verbal Relations and Analogies

Definition: CMR is a test of how well students understand how words and concepts are associated and related. It is an important component of basic conceptualization, decoding skills and reading comprehension.

Well Developed: High scores in CMR indicate strengths in understanding verbal analogies and the ability to see relationships between ideas and meanings of words. They have the needed skills needed for basic conceptualization and decoding. CMR is necessary for performance in advanced reading and mathematics and required for critical thinking abilities in deductive reasoning and problem solving.

Under Developed: Low scores in CMR indicate students are likely to have difficulty with reading comprehension and appreciating the deeper and more subtle meanings that are found in most reading material. Areas that may be affected include advanced reading, mathematics, problems solving skills and deductive reasoning.

Cognition of Semantic Systems – CMS
Tracking Extended Verbal Information

Definition: This is a test of verbal comprehension of extended information. It requires the ability to comprehend relatively complex ideas and concepts. It is a critical ability for understanding long sentences, directions, instructions and lectures. This ability is needed in all academic areas and academic situations.

Well Developed: Students who have high scores in CMS are quick in grasping and tracking extended verbal information both heard and read. They have the ability to comprehend relatively complex ideas and concepts. This ability is required in all areas of school curriculum.

Under Developed: Low scores in CMS identify the student who has difficulty following directions and understanding complex verbal material —written or auditory. They will have difficulty learning from lectures and extended verbal information. A weakness here is sometimes related to poor neurological processing abilities. Often students with a history of ear infections and antibiotic use have weaknesses in this ability. A hearing examination may be in order to rule out any type of hearing loss especially in the conversational range of hearing.


Interpretation: Memory Abilities

Memory of Figural Units – MFU
Memory for Visual Detail

Definition: MFU indicates how well students pay attention to visual details. Visual memory for details appears to be very important for reading achievement, particularly for paragraph comprehension. Also, many written tests that involve detailed word problems or prose passages require this fundamental ability.

Well Developed: High MFU scores indicate students who are good observers and have the ability to recall details of events, material they read or of objects and of places they see. They can remember where they saw objects and where things are placed.

Under Developed: Students who are have under developed MFU may be quite forgetful. They forget the visual details of objects, where they put things or saw them. They have difficulty recalling the details of what they read, see or hear.

Memory of Symbolic Units-visual – MSU-v
Visual Memory and Visual Attention

Definition: MSU-v tests visual memory and visual attention. It is the ability to remember isolated items of symbolic information which have been viewed for a period of time. MSU-v is a foundational readiness ability for learning to read and spell.

Well Developed: High MFU scores indicate students who are good observers and have the ability to recall details of events, material they read or of objects and of places they see. They can remember where they saw objects and where things are placed.

Under Developed: Students who are have under developed MFU may be quite forgetful. They forget the visual details of objects, where they put things or saw them. They have difficulty recalling the details of what they read, see or hear.

Memory of Symbolic Units-auditory – MSU-a
Auditory Memory and Auditory Attention

Definition: MSU-a tests auditory memory and auditory attention. It is the ability to remember isolated items of symbolic information which have been presented auditorily. MSU-a is a foundational readiness ability for developing arithmetic and number concepts.

Well Developed: Strong MSU-a abilities show strengths in auditory attending. If this score is higher than their MSU-v score it may indicate that they prefer auditory input for their learning modality over other types.

Under Developed: Low MSU scores indicate a weakness in visual or auditory attention and memory weakness that will be a limiting factor in rote learning. These students will often have difficulty learning the alphabet, spelling words or learning arithmetic facts in the early grades. Later they may perform poorly on achievement measures in all subject areas. If MSU-auditory is lower (at least two stanines) than MSU-visual then there may be some difficulty in auditory perceptual abilities.

Memory of Symbolic Systems – MSS-v
Sequential Visual Memory and Visual Concentration

Definition:  MSS-v tests students’ visual concentration abilities. It tests the ability to remember connections between units of symbolic information presented visually. It is a sequencing, conservation skill and is a critical ability for reading (MSS visual). It shows that students are able to retain information long enough to work with it.

Well Developed:  High MSS scores shows strengths in visual and/or auditory concentration and the ability to retain a whole system of information in order to work with it. It show strengths in systems memory and conservation skills (as defined by Piaget). High scores in this ability typify the high academic achievement.

Under Developed:  Students low in MSS-v often have difficulty concentrating on, retaining and conserving an entire system of information for later use. There may be difficulty with spelling.

Memory of Symbolic Systems-auditory – MSS-a
Sequential Auditory Memory and Auditory Concentration

Definition: MSS-a tests students’ auditory concentration ability. It tests the ability to remember connections between units of symbolic information presented auditorily. It is a sequencing, conservation skill and is an important ability for arithmetic and basic number concepts. It shows that students have the ability to retain a whole system of information long enough to work with it.

Well Developed: High MSI scores indicate students who are likely to be strong abstract, analytical learners. They probably will do well in working with and manipulating theoretical, symbolic information (i.e. mathematics, physics, chemistry and computer programming).

Under Developed: Individuals with under developed MSS-a often have difficulty concentrating on, retaining and conserving an entire system of information for later use. Multiplication facts often pose difficulties. Spelling may also be weak.

Memory of Symbolic Implications – MSI
Inferential Memory

Definition: This is a test of inferential memory. It test students’ ability to remember arbitrary connections between symbols—in this case numbers and letters. This ability is valuable in academic areas that require memorizing new material prior to full comprehension of it as in the study of foreign languages. This ability is also beneficial to creative individuals who pull from many seemingly unrelated sources in developing an idea or invention of a product.

Well Developed: High MSI scores indicate students who are likely to be strong abstract, analytical learners. They probably will do well in working with and manipulating theoretical, symbolic information (i.e. mathematics, physics, chemistry and computer programming).

Under Developed: A weakness in MSI may indicate difficulty in memorizing new material before fully comprehending it. In addition it may show problems with inferential memory—being able to make certain inferences or derive understanding from material held in memory. Students weak in this ability may have difficulty remembering arithmetic facts and the multiplication table.


Interpretation: Evaluation Abilities

Evaluation of Figural Units – EFU
Visual Discrimination

Definition: EFU is the ability to discriminate among units and details of figural information. It is a test of visual discrimination and is related to attention to detail in visual information. It is an essential visual ability required initially for learning to read and later for efficient, stress-free reading.

Well Developed: Students with strong EFU scores have good attention to details in figural material and good visual discrimination. They are able to make accurate judgments about sameness, differences, heights, widths, lengths, etc. It is an essential visual ability required for reading.

Under Developed: Low scores on EFU are high level signs of visual problems or visual stress. Young children may reverse letters and numbers and older students may omit small words or misread beginning and ending sounds. Older students who are reading may stumble over and misread short words but have no difficulty with long words. They will also have difficulty discriminating the likenesses and differences in finer details of figural material.

Evaluation of Figural Units (EFC)
Judging Similarities of Concepts

EFC test the ability to make classification judgments with regard to concepts. It is the ability to analyze the characteristics of an object and judge its similarity to other objects or groups of figures. EFC is related to concept formation and reading comprehension.

Strong: Students with strong EFC scores are able to make classification judgments about concepts. They have the ability to analyze how items are classified and make judgments about similarities to other classified items. Strength in this ability is important for good reading comprehension.

Weak: Students who do poorly in EFC will have difficulty conceptualizing similarities and differences in objects and the meanings of words. They are likely to have problems with concept formation which is required for effective advanced reading and comprehension skills.

Evaluation of Symbolic Classes – ESC
Judging Symbolic Classes

Definition: ESC test the ability to make judgments about the classifyingsymbolic information. It is symbolic discrimination and is related to logic. This ability is associated with numerical problem-solving and the use of “set” concepts in arithmetic.

Well Developed: High ESC scores show strength in the ability to make judgments and discriminations as to how symbolic information should be classified. It also shows students who are strong in symbolic and number problem solving skills and are able to use the “set” concept in arithmetic.

Under Developed: Students with low ESC scores often have difficulty determining which arithmetic operation is required in solving a problem. They may also encounter difficulty recognizing the similarities between groups of spelling words.

Evaluation of Symbolic Systems – ESS
Analyzing Number Series

Definition: ESS is the ability to determine the correct principle that is operating in a symbolic system or number series. This ability is used in selecting the correct rule to apply in solving arithmetic problems.

Well Developed: Students who are high in ESS are good at selecting the correct arithmetic operation to apply in problem solving and in analyzing number sets and series.

Under Developed: Students with low scores in ESS have difficulty judging and discriminating the correctness of different sets of number sequences. Weakness in this ability are associated with difficulty in solving arithmetic problems even when arithmetic facts are known.


Interpretation: Convergent Production Abilities

Convergent Production of Figural Units – NFU
Reproducing figures, shapes and designs

Definition: This is the ability to reproduce figures of specified examples. It is figural reproduction and assesses fine-motor skills. Generally the NFU score indicates whether a student’s speed of writing is sufficient to keep up with classroom work and complete assignments within the expected time limits. Thus, NFU is relevant to most academic areas in which written work is required.

Well Developed: High scores in NFU indicate students who are able to accomplish written work adequately and generally within the time generally provided in classrooms. If the quality of the figures is also high, it could indicate a student has artistic talent.

Under Developed: Low NFU scores generally show students who have difficulty getting written work done on time. If they have poor or distorted figures an in-depth perceptual-motor examination my be in order; good quality figures with a low number of figures produced is typical of the slow writer or perhaps a careful, methodical worker.

Convergent Production of Symbolic Transformations – NSS
Applying Number Facts

Definition: NSS tests students’ ability to solve nonverbal arithmetic problems. It requires mastery of basic number concepts and rote arithmetic facts.

Well Developed: Students with high NSS scores are able to use and apply arithmetic facts. It also shows that a student can work flexibly within number systems.

Under Developed: Low scores on NSS show poor mastery and application of basic arithmetic facts and the inability to solve advanced, nonverbal arithmetic problems using rote skills.

Convergent Production of Symbolic Transformations – NST
Word Recognition and Speed of Reading

Definition: NST is the ability to produce new symbolic items of information by revising given items. It is related to flexibility and set breaking with symbolic information. In particular it measures speed of word recognition and speed of reading. NST gives a general indication of whether students can keep up with the reading assignments required in their classroom.

Well Developed: High NST scores indicate students who are fast, efficient readers. They are able to process changing symbols quickly which facilitates word recognition and speed of reading.

Under Developed: Low NST scores usually show students who are slow readers. They have difficulty in processing symbols and therefore with word recognition. They are likely to have difficulty completing reading assignments on time. Additionally, students may have tracking problems causing difficulty in following a line of type and returning to the beginning of a new line.

Convergent Production of Symbolic Implications – NSI
Symbolic Deductive Reasoning

Definition: NSI is the ability to make symbolic deductions about given symbolic information without prior practice with the information. It is a test of logic and symbolic reasoning. It requires prerequisites in other abilities such as comprehension, memory and evaluation in the symbolic and some semantic areas. NSI is related to academic performance in mathematics and critical thinking in the social sciences.

Well Developed: Students with high NSI scores are usually good with logic. They are practical thinkers and have good deductive thinking abilities. They may also be astute arguers.

Under Developed: Students with low NSI scores may have difficulty with deductive reasoning and may experience difficulty when new relations into a system. They are likely to have problems with algebra even when computation skills are excellent. Logic type problems may prove to be difficult also.


Interpretation: Divergent Production Abilities

Divergent Production of Figural Units – DFU
Creative Production of Figures, Shape and Designs

Definition: DFU tests students’ ability to generate visual ideas and the ability to communicate visually using figures, shapes, pictures and designs. It involves the ability to use ambiguous information in creative ways. Talent for various visual arts could be demonstrated in the subtest but such skills are not involved in the scoring or reflected in the overall score.

Well Developed: High scores in DFU indicate creativity and fluency with visual ideas and material. Students strong in this ability have an ability to generate visual ideas and have an ease and flexibility in breaking with conventional thinking or ideas.

Under Developed: Students with low DFU scores have difficulty generating visual ideas. They have difficulty “creating” things from out of their heads and usually need detailed instructions about visual art projects. They are likely to struggle with open-ended projects.

Divergent Production of Symbolic Relations – DSR
Creative Symbolic Problem Solving

Definition: This subtest identifies students’ abilities to be creative with number concepts. It is the ability to generate connections between letters or numbers in different ways. It is creative, symbolic problem solving. Arithmetic concepts are a prerequisite to complete the DSR test.

Well Developed: High scores on DSR indicate a strong ability for problem solving. They have the ability to find new solutions to problems. It also shows students who probably do not approach problems solving in conventional ways.

Under Developed: Low DSR scores may show a student who has difficulty assimilating arithmetic and math concepts or who is timid in exploring the various consequences or possible outcomes in exercises.

Divergent Production of Semantic Units – DMU
Verbal Fluency and Creative writing

Definition: This is a test of verbal fluency and creativity. DMU is the ability to develop and express through writing unique and original ideas within a limited amount of time. This ability is related to creative writing skills.

Well Developed: High DMU scores may reflect creative, original writing abilities and most certainly fluency in developing verbal ideas. These students are usually creative, imaginative thinkers.

Under Developed: Low scores in DMU may indicate slowness in composing essays or stories. Students who are weak in this ability may take a rote approach to creative writing. They may not have much of a sense of humor or not understand some types of humor.