These are the abilities that we assess to see where a student is having trouble in school. We begin with the 14 board dimensions of the model. The gray colored items in the image above shows the individual abilities that are included in the SOI Learning Abilities Test which we use to assess a students strengths and weaknesses.

Assessment Interpretation: Broad Dimensions

The broad dimensions of the model and the individual abilities give insight into the strengths and weakness of individuals. These “strengths” and “weaknesses” are more appropriately referred to as “highly developed,” “developed” and “under developed.”

  • Highly developed is considered above average ability.
  • Developed is seen as average for a particular group.
  • Under developed is viewed as below average abilities.

Individual’s intellectual abilities can be understood in terms of the board dimensions and also the individual composite abilities.

Assessment Interpretation: the Operations


Definition: Cognition is defined as immediate discovery, awareness, perception of information in various forms. Cognition involves all types of sensory input—visual, auditory, tactile, smell and taste. It is the foundation ability for comprehending, recognizing and assimilating information. Thus, it is a highly valued ability in the school environment.

Well Developed: Individuals with high Cognition abilities are able to rapidly comprehend, recognize and assimilate information. They do not need much repetition or exposure to material to learn it. They like lessons and explanations to move quickly and are often ahead of the teacher in seeing where things are going. They may show irritation and impatience with slower cognizers and can’t see why everyone isn’t as fast as they are.

Under Developed: Individuals weak in Cognition no matter how high their IQ scores, will need repetitive explanations to catch on to new material. Low Cognition scores may indicate weakness in processing sensory information—visual, auditory, kinesthetic. They may need information presented in several ways and through more than one modality to aide their comprehension. They will ask many questions about how to do things and show confusion and uncertainty with new materials.


Definition: Memory is the ability to recall previously comprehended material. Recall of information takes place in response to cues similar to those with which the material was learned. The importance of memory as an intellectual ability, especially in the education process, cannot be overestimated. It is a primary ability tapped in most assessments of achievement.

Well Developed: High Memory ability in students gives them ready access to the material they have previously learned. They have what can be called a very efficient mental filing system. They are able to retrieve facts and information quickly and usually perform very well on tests that require high recall of information.

Under Developed: Students who are weak in Memory will have difficulty recalling previously learned or comprehended material. Low-memory students need much practice and repetition before they are able to store and retrieve information successfully.


Definition: Evaluation is the ability to make judgments or to reach decisions. It includes making sound judgments using foresight and effective planning. Academically, evaluation abilities are used when activities require the selection of a correct procedure, operation or principle or when analysis is required to identify specific characteristics

Well Developed: Students high in Evaluation tend to make good judgments and decisions. They are able to analyze material and select the best answer or solution. They have high confidence and trust in themselves. This ability and their confidence often makes them natural leaders among their peers.

Under Developed: Students who are weak in Evaluation abilities tend to make wrong decisions and are poor planners. They may seem immature and exhibit poor or inappropriate social behavior. They lack the skills to make sound judgments using foresight and effective planning. Academically they will have difficulty selecting the correct procedure, operation or principle to apply and they may have problems when analysis is needed to identify specified characteristics.

Convergent Production

Definition: Convergent Production is the ability to solve problems or follow rules to generate information from given information to find a specified answer or response. It is considered expressive intelligence whereas Cognition is considered receptive intelligence. Convergent Production is the application of learned information. It is the primary ability utilized in schools. As such it is highly related to academic achievement. It includes the ability to arrive at a correct solution in math, express ideas in written and verbal forms, apply generalizations and conduct research projects.

Well Developed: High Convergent Production ability shows students who are skilled at problem solving in the academic environment. They are able to arrive at correct solutions in arithmetic and mathematics, adept in written and verbal skills, can apply generalizations and conduct research projects. They are excellent students and scholars and enjoy research and related work.

Under Developed: Students weak in Convergent Production may have poor work skills and show a reluctance to stick with tedious subject matter. They will have difficulty arriving at a correct solution in arithmetic, expressing ideas in written and/or verbal form, applying generalizations and conducting research projects. They often need external motivation to do school work.

Divergent Production

Definition: Divergent Production is the generation of information where the emphasis is on variety and quality of output. Characteristics of Divergent Production are fluency, flexibility and originality. While it is not creativity alone it is an essential element to generate new and creative approaches to finding new solutions or new approaches in solving problems.

Well Developed: Students who are strong in Divergent Production are creative and dislike routine. They often have high energy levels and are single-minded when working on projects of interest. They may refuse to work in fields they dislike or for teachers they consider unfair. They often are highly selective regarding friends. They are flexible and are impatient with adults who are inflexible or intolerant of alternate work styles.

Under Developed: Students weak in Divergent Production may not be fluent in generating new and creative ideas; they may not be very sensitive and may have low self concepts. They also may exhibit high levels of anxiety. Weaknesses in Divergent Production will make students inflexible and conventional.

Assessment Interpretation: the Contents


Definition: Figural content is concrete information, real objects, non conceptual material and spatial information and real objects. Research shows that it is generally associated with the right hemisphere of the brain.

Well Developed: Strength in Figural Content indicates that students work well with concrete and spatial material. They may have good number concepts and spatial organizational skills. They are comfortable working with manipulatives and concrete material.

Under Developed: Weakness in Figural content indicates poor ability in dealing with concrete and spatial information. These types of weaknesses lead to arithmetic and mathematics problems as well as difficulties in other curriculum areas require them to understand figural and spatial material.


Definition: Symbolic content involves numbers, letters, music, Morse code and all other types of coded information. This type of content information relates to representational information and appears to operate at the crossover point of the brain, connecting the two hemispheres.

Well Developed: Students with strong Symbolic Content ability work well with numbers, letters and other types of notations. They may have high arithmetic and math skills and exceptional facility in understanding and programming computers. They are skilled in working with information at a representational level and learn to read best through a phonetic approach.

Under Developed: Weakness with Symbolic Content shows difficulty in understanding symbolic material. This is usually seen as problems with number concepts or in learning to read through a phonetic approach.


Definition: Semantic content deals with words, ideas and concepts. It is abstract information and clearly related to the left hemisphere.

Well Developed: Students with high Semantic content ability are able to work with abstract verbal information such as concepts and ideas which are communicated through words. This ability allows students to work with and manipulate abstract material. They will probably learn to read best through a sight-word approach method.

Under Developed: Weak Semantic content ability shows that a student may not learn well from verbal material—written or spoken. They have difficulty dealing with the abstractness of words and the concepts and ideas which are conveyed by them. These students will not do well with a rightward method of teaching reading.

Assessment Interpretation: the Products


Definition: Units is the ability to deal with one thing at a time, i.e. a picture, a number, a word, etc. It not only involves single, whole objects but also includes the ability to see and work with the details of various material.

Well Developed: High Units ability indicates that a student works well with objects, pictures, symbols or words one at a time. They may be very good at seeing and working with details.

Under Developed: Students who are weak in Units may show a lack of attention to details. They either don’t work well with one thing at a time or do not care to. They will miss errors in their work i.e. misspelled words, arithmetic errors, punctuation, etc.


Definition: Classes is the ability to group things according to common properties and organize information into appropriate categories.

Well Developed: Students with high Classes ability are usually well organized and have little difficulty grouping and organizing objects, symbols, words and ideas.

Under Developed: Weakness in Classes indicates poor understanding of how things are grouped together by characteristics. It would suggest poor organization abilities and an underlying general confusion where classes of objects, symbols and words are involved.


Definition: Relations ability involves knowing how various items, symbols or words are related to each other, how they are associated or seeing the connection between them.

Well Developed: Students who are strong in Relations have well developed associative thinking abilities. They understand of how things are associated; how they go together; or how they are related. They can see the relationship between things from many different perspectives, i.e. time, order, function, etc. This ability is the beginning of critical and higher thinking skills.

Under Developed: Students who are weak in relations have difficulty with associative type thinking and being able to see how things are related to one another through various context as function, time, visual details, order, etc. They will have difficulty with verbal analogies and ratios in arithmetic.


Definition: Systems abilities involves ordered or sequenced information or material. It contains interrelated or interacting parts within the material. Systems involves underlying or implied rules which governs the sequencing or ordering of material or information.

Well Developed: Students who are strong in Systems are able to understand sequenced and extended information. They can perceive and apply the rules that govern sequenced materials—objects, symbols, words, ideas or concepts.

Under Developed: Students who are weak in relations have difficulty with associative type thinking and being able to see how things are related to one another through various context as function, time, visual details, order, etc. They will have difficulty with verbal analogies and ratios in arithmetic.


Definition: Transformations involves modified material from one form to another form, such as an object changing positions or rewriting a sentence and retaining the original meaning. This product is an important part of creativity in all of the operations. It is essential for various types of design work, math and science, and translation of languages.

Well Developed: Strong Transformations ability shows the ability to see perspectives. Student who are strong in this ability have good spatial perception and orientation or work with high level verbal transformations. Students strong in this ability may show high creative abilities in art or creative writing.

Under Developed: Weakness in Transformation indicates difficulty understanding things when they change position or perspective. They will have difficulty verbal information that reworded but maintains its same meaning.


Definition: Implication involves projecting outcomes of sequences of information or action, cause and effect, logic and consequences. It implies the ability to learn from experiences. It is clearly related to Piaget’s stage of formal operations — the ability to reverse a process.

Well Developed: Strong Implications ability shows a student with good logic, an understanding of cause and effect and consequences of actions. They learn through experience and from a hands on approach.

Under Developed: Weakness in Implications may show poor logic, lack of understanding of cause-effect and consequences. Students do not learn from experience or past mistakes and tend to repeat the same errors or mistakes. They may also be very impulsive and have difficulty controlling it.